classification of metals pdf

endobj For the many different metals and alloys sold today, nearly as many classification systems exist to keep all the standards straight within the industry. �����p��Qᄞ�������ׯ��a&�u��������ZWk������6����n��� ���g endstream endobj 87 0 obj <>stream However, some metals such as mercury are also in liquid state… �P�Hh�!�B�X�Q�91Ɏq�0��&ۣ ���@�"""C_jl4�/S"�"���(��il:m�@�n9Z2:�ᜂ� xe조�����5�Ls�,���<2��!������5��T" NR Traditionally the three major classes of materials are metals , polymers , and ceramics . endstream Ceramic materials 3. �$���\�Cs^q�߹lO���$�؎�a�]r��GI����5i����y��hn��>����J�'�ŧ;�A���ak�I`�E߹���k��߿���S�Y��L�����b�� ���s4t/�*N�1��Ե��y��YXh��Z�d:m�1�s��[��]3�� �\�`]��RB�(��[憐5I=\��Io��);�ϣ5T�w�&��RJ9p����У[�U �m��)��K 1. Semiconductors – These are solids which have resistivity or conductivity val… �I%A�U�A��U���$�B�=WI�Z����%��7�V��u�'��M�|_L$���F������CpM+-��w�#�|�#��� �e��.��GE�>JQtq����V�� rC�-��h��vbB�iSe���;xA�F�I �� �4��Ip�j��a�e�,� �a1�!�P ..�6�pAp�gXa!d=�a({a+���� �n����:m����;�h,o@��;-�I��K: h޴�]o�0�����.J4���*k��ZEM���&ȸM�_?S�5���i�>�9'`�� D�GGb�G;2�Љvx��df�(�B��~�� ���e���V���c\���y��!�ŀ^O\��gD��g����U�n^W&F7P��)ReWk�Gd`g�*�U��[!��Z��S4�S$��N5���.� lua@ӻ�2|בֿ�;WD�e�Ex��%�>˰R��\B�T�A��~:}��ȋa�yD�� Rolling ii. %PDF-1.4 n�����ZoT�/��lxj%��a4�lb�{! A metal which is very good carrier of electricity is called conductor. There are plenty of free electrons available for electric conduction. endstream endobj 92 0 obj <>stream The castings can produce in sizes varying from a few mm to several meters. p- Block elements: They belongs to group- 13 to 18. application of external force. h��Xms�6��0���C.���:�(��z�og�ɴ�| IPbC�*I�v~�- I��^���fbYw�,삻��P"a< R'D�ѐƄ 2"\ИȘ�0����( ("d$`DDL� Uh� U$�~��� A�"�3PDF(��� 9�!%���!�(Ɩc�`��1�����[��ci��'?8���.���ϸ��fd���c\gM^�3|�7نaVK���!L����f�(����>���S¹6⥮��z-���4�ĮIlP�0�p��X��8���I,���h��Gh���n�lt~3]�\���BF���l|=:%�/��e8�WG�����ӓ�������|�Z�����U�w��9e�"��r��i���?��xD�O���"r��οO�L�.�����V��|��i�������TU���J�O$k����'ſ��bB$�\ä��e����-{��كU�q>m�:?��Y��0���i�I�Oi� ayJ�\n����݃�����W�f��t��Ã��� v�ݛ�y�/�noo�[�7�X�$p7�Վڿ+�#A��d���B�^�z8���J��q`�_��ݧ@>��a��ټ߯������?�X� 77 0 obj They are bendable into different shapes and have many uses in … Iron standard specification and metal characteristics from ASTM and SAE are in the table below: fk����y��=�7P���A'+���.ܙ����v�tRU�I�7��8���t-�L��-�P���41�P��UQ��х"yQBK��� mK�zC-A9�/����ś�( @��% l�th&�� M�6&�l ��� L>aa��ä�I����A2gZ�A�� ޛAt���@�t��K���u����v�I���K�"4��KXI�T���"JP��$A: h��SMk�@�+�fw]]� 4m9��z �%��A�`�}��&-��9��6��ͼ�X6ʀ� �V��[��T¦�i���aER�DDDDDDB&. A large number of metals are available in nature. Metals: Those materials which possess the characteristic of being hard, shiny, malleable, fusible, ductile, etc. Metals and alloys Materials. �.��V$��&�5��@T3R� Metals and NonMetals Class 10 Notes NCERT CBSE Chapter 3 Chemistry Download pdf. ꭄij�v�J� ��{�:I�B�m�!6��0ga���k��L�n��gCfζ����)`���NC4ȃQ���6�i1"��JĆ�)NC`��(l.� A Later further classifications were tried out as our knowledge of elements and their properties increased. Students and apprentices should become familar with at least a couple of them early on in their training. 78 0 obj 1. The metals and non-metals differ in their properties. Few examples of metals are iron, gold, silver, aluminium, copper, etc. Casting can weigh from a few grams to several tons. The pure metals are rarely used as structural materials as they lack mechanical strength. Polymers 1. Ferrous Metals. Energy band theory can be used to explain the classification of materials. geg*��e�� (L{�xG���:�-m�������7U�/�Qݕ[zR�]o Ƽ�ɘ�rؘ|�����u�����שÏ Xa_���`�}�l4��0��0��k�(��w#��+^�c&9uR�=)a�>5jk .Q��5So���y2���y�K�|�8�u���>>��8����>}��Bz��_�{��|��Ei�y��?�˻�=}��7� ��Z(s�Rv�ֱ�5���D�����y,~^DmI0�E�G�8�j����������� ���L�~�8Ww���x�0H���Px�MИ�0� �M�~'[��k�e�L���Mp=�ظ���m��mڬ������v�h�p�֒���˙_��`�� ���?�W� ��� Heavy metals are elements with metallic properties and an atomic mass of > 20. The metal casting processis the oldest and popular method of manufacturing means of designing the desired shapes. h�22P0P02T0R02R07U�����wJ,Nu��+��H�)K-�LN�w�K�O��KW01j��K�MK��&�T�� C0��kg�lPTbA�P{RbI1DoT�Kn� ��1B Forging iii. �2&��•�E�t]���E�#�|���>v@9!ށ��mp����������[��r3� �z�aRv�AEu��bq���۶�z�=+��i=&�D�i7��I��;�o���?�{i7\0`��z��6��;i?��~"���� Composites 4. Metals are natural compounds of earth’s crust, in which they are generally found in the form of metal ores, associated both with each other and with many other elements. Classification of Materials. 5) _�1[�����o�a�GM+؃�[4���F a���U��6-:º�Xu,y ��%�}@��L��g6�~c�f>9N�l)A,�2�,��䈂�� vU�G�4� b����b6' ��]��W�V��3�+k�A�� uuid:57b7e382-a639-4b8c-8c10-0f97b345cdc7 METAL PROPERTIES, CHARACTERISTICS, USES, AND CODES SUBCOURSE NO. By K.G.S.Prasad Rao Consultant Metallurgist 16/03/2016 2. The ores are very different from the finished metals that we see in buildings and bridges. Hence, σ ~ 102 – 108 S/m ρ ~ 10-2 – 10-8Ωm 1. In addition to classifying the elements into s block, p block, d block and f block, the elements can be classified in three categories on the basis of their properties as: (1) Metals (2) Non-metals and (3) Metalloids. These elements were classified by Lavoisier in to metals and non-metals by studying their properties. Insulators – These are solids which have very high resistivity or very low conductivity. They are the hardest elements which are found on the earth.. h�27Q0P���wJ,Nu��+��H�)K-�LN�w�K�O��KW07� ��K�MK��&�T�� C0��kg` ��� Conductors. Metals are further classified into Ferrous Metals, Non-Ferrous Metals. application/pdf r ]3�O��3Q���L��!2FF⟱�ޙ9� G4�pA�!#��L3C8`�U���'���>!��zv����w/Dv�KrQD���ވ��H�!�C�;���� �N�N��H'��i���A=>����O���v��������$�z������Џ��h �����B�o��T/������DA����������%� �����s��WO�K��K�������������Z�����k�����"��0��k����v����o� The process of extracting metal ores buried deep underground is called Mining. 2.METALS AND THEIR CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION 2.1 Introduction A thorough understanding of chemical principles is an essential prerequisite for the safe use of metals and thus any proposed system of classification must be referenced to the periodic table of the elements. classification in 1883 and Brezina’s modification of the Tshermak-Rose classification scheme (see Prior, 1920). |��u���.F�P�5H�Ч`Y�:�U�t+�lZ��ط�T��5,VxL Basic Classification of Engineering Materials Basically Engineering Materials Can be classified into two categories- MetalsNon-Metals Metals Metals are polycrystalline bodies which are having number of differentially oriented fine crystals. grouping the then known elements as metals and non-metals. The extraction of metals from ores is what allows us to use the minerals in the ground! �A���xf{V�:��e�NS�rܱ��Hr���ɎC@���!�89�å 0�aؔ�!��Y(q ܐ��u@}��7d,0���8���P�2��A��q�(���D8��ӆq8��fL�����Eقd�M� �&��[h70�@���h6�A0�o�W�7A�L ֶ���}�!�i��4l���n�C@0EAF��P�a���6��8�h3(r� F�/��Ld2�e��A ��)�.�S��@v �tP�Y�dtP�|���9��o���2� �VA��� m�7��IA�80�A��m�% ���G��@>���<1�'ն�9rlL���`D�T�d����$��� �&�H6��C0r�!�r X@��q�9�����a��D4)�$4�o����kM� _�CbÄf�� �۷I;�D.���̃��>��]�&苽HQ��0Bw�-���`�b Physical Properties of Metals: (a) Malleability: It is that property of metals which allows them to be beaten into the thin sheets. �ap�Z�o�j������9�5�w Ի���wA`q[x�8�d���LZ�t(�.�5A��՟t��=;�����Q=l/�����X��}����;�O u�#� D.�A}��� ���|R�#��.�!7Q�N�}H� &�A�z[Z4�� PoV�HPgs���"��������a ��7j���lIu2Ĥ4�Hi�R��t���$Q�&@Ő.�.��>����'V�A�bBS��aNP�$8�pA�h��BbBTi0i��x7D"����̖����<2���:s%@<2� �� xhA�,r�UN�0�d Products having very complex shapes, hollow sections, complicated internal cavities and irregularly cur… 0. Atoms in metals and their alloys are arranged in Fig ( 2 ( Classification of ferrous metals. General classification 5. 2012-11-27T05:50:54Z This report highlights the classification of the engineering materials and their processing techniques. Metals 1.2 Non – ferrous metals These materials refer to the remaining metals known to mankind. =�a~�xk��a��HL �GA��&a4i��":ݧ�"-�!�a0B��0��0�b""""#�;[KL�"�vKQ�������������6���5��=I.D��漃�yB����A(DA�����"L��2�&c#�A��30�� RFl �40�CM4D4 4�$��T�a0���OZDQ܌z�G|Zu�u��0R~��@�3�A�_#�.d�|��̏�m�������*i��A�=��'�I������u�������*8������������������W������߯����D ����Z\��5�^S���_]���u������f�u�C�������]k��]>�����V���_k�_��ߍ�᥶Ն� �~_�U1�ll{�"��4�t�o��}}�J����d 酰�k�?�UQ`�4!�B!&�hL`�8�DDDDDDG���-���e���a$d&��h7!�����03��uf@��L&P���DDž\}4쏩rc�!�EE�ᤴ���?��mUեa�_J�&w��!I!]i��{_�>"���UHh*YGZ�IB���\dA&D�j΄9����)�3f�@��ȃ!���>�#�. The metal ores are found in the earth’s crust in varying abundance. The metal is subjected to stress.It is a process of changing the shape and size of the material under the influence of external force or stress.Plastic Deformation occurs. alkali elements Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr Basis for usage of Material h�2�T0P���wJ,Nu��+��sqt���H�)K-�LN�w�K�O��K���s�+΄��2��K�3����Az]R���2J�-����$"T�&�T�� C0 �46�$�8���"�� � Xk/� Pure Iron is of little use as an engineering material because it is too soft and ductile. Non-metals … H��WKo�6��W�(�"Jv"�R��`�lQ=E��q��8I�Ƕ����pfHJ�7-z�k�$�=�7�w}V��]eG����cv���*ck�o����� k������J�u'��f��/ŬΗ���bv�oks�����䟋�"�T̚���`����M�k�#ڳޞ3�8{�ک>+l�?��A�G�j� ~ �6N���&�=�,�, Nitro Pro 7 (7. Metals And Their Properties- Physical and Chemical All the things around us are made of 100 or so elements. " c�r(� �!�2�c]&�p�S)�D6rP� `r��9�C0�&���>�H8�o���� A�vmv�M�Cf�!�u1�>�6���+j�&ɐ�VA����{z`�@�����&� ���7qV�JC�A6\��>��80Z=4�j�ch!���H9[�R �6�L��)(�a� sA"��&��i$e���!�XP� �8)� ��$]�� A��&!A�r���$!��!�A�V�6�H�D1LAa;���#% �* �r��z[� a## 7#� ��O$*׆�4��! !�/��3�E��Xy�.w���n�G�N�s���u�Gv�j�΁�v�%[Aj��٦k�(j�8SFQ{Of�_�I'����ĜN�~�m ;a'���K;=��;���rܰ����w-W���ǝs���dԠ��c�4�N�FUǪʢ��������#_�I��;�])Ɉ6��lK}�����"_��I�d��@�V�a>���!� �:�� endstream endobj 88 0 obj <>stream endstream endobj 3 0 obj <>/Filter/CCITTFaxDecode/Height 526/ImageMask true/Length 5823/Subtype/Image/Width 1040>>stream … 84 0 obj <>stream Metal classification provides a means of separating ferrous and nonferrous materials. Normally major metals are in solid states at normal temperature. endstream endobj 90 0 obj <>stream 0. Classification of elements as metals and nonmetals. endstream endobj 89 0 obj <>stream h�22V0P���w�/�+Q0���L)�62 classification of metals -MEC 1 1. Classification of metals Metals can be divided into two main groups: ferrous metals are those which contain iron and non-ferrous metals that are those which contain no iron. The ferrous metals themselves can also be classified into "families', and these are shown in figure ( 2 ). METAL CLASSIFICATION All metals may be classified as ferrous or nonferrous. The most common contaminants of heavy metal are Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, and As. <> Based on these earlier schemes, Prior (1920) devel-oped a comprehensive meteorite classification scheme, in- <. 1 Classification of Biomaterials – Ceramics, Metals, Polymers, Composites 1 “A nonviable material used in 1.1 Metals Materials in this group are composed of one or more metallic elements (such as iron, aluminum, copper, titanium, gold, and nickel), and often also nonmetallic elements (for example, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) in relatively small amounts. endstream endobj 91 0 obj <>stream And is one of the first steps in manufacturing most products. h�D�]�0��r�t��lk$Ad�� �݉.4����'t��{��% l6r7qG>.��5�5wIr�\���{�j�i�kvq�֨Pi�ZD���3�΍��l�v��|� �T�ZȒ�?_b�3��1���`$d婝��cu�cG��� �TY!/=..��S�'Ý| ̉�`$vʪ( �4��I%Z�z_��]i*_}j��^�-}%�x�WZ�����]y���h��dQ�Ԉ�ߑG�%�ZIU�I$�T�M/�i��H}%Z�M%].+MV�ih��}u�c����%Q��?^��u��WX�B�Ф��T+_]$��_Iw�Z�RK�������� T%����Q�+T�%���z���K�$�W!��N��_����~�+���Z�~���\.�/�zJ����c��I%[K�IwZ�ֵ#UIW�֗_��Q��t�H�z\""?�j�]}RT��al��Z�z���GK����^G�֐h�KK.��Z��f�K�]uz�Ҏ"����5� ����W^��C�Y��ִ��TTzJ�iUUu�� zK�S�B�ڏ��I,�8�i-5ZU ҩuӥ�It�Ҫ��ꯤ����b�C��i�b����������+j#WQU�ª��,/a0�A�P�`�j�aS� 2012-11-27T05:51:16Z The relative values of electrical conductivity (σ) and resistivity (ρ=1/σ) help classify solids as: 1. are termed as metal. stream ALLOYS are produced by melting or sintering two or more metals or metals and a non-metal together. 1. For the purpose of this article, most current nanomaterials could be organized into four types: • Carbon Based Materials • Metal Based Materials • Dendrimers • Composites endstream endobj 85 0 obj <>stream They are also naturally present in the rocks washed by surface water and groundwater and in atmospheric dust. risk assessments, voluntary risk assessments, REACH dossiers, high HEAT TREATMENT OF METALS GENERAL PURPOSE This chapter contains basic information pertaining to properties and identification of metal and heat-treating procedures used for metals. Most of the metals are solids in nature except for mercury which shows liquid-like motion. Main Group Al, Ga, In, Sn, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. 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P+��~ Y?a Heavy metal contamination to soil and the environment has been accelerated in modern society due to industrialization, rapidly expanded world population, and intensified agriculture. CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS Mandeleev’s Periodic Law: ... (Alkali metals) and Group-2 elements (Alkaline earth metals) which respectively have ns1 and ns2 outermost electronic configurations. h�L�� Nitro Pro 7 (7. View Notes - 531100- Chapter 8. Conductor is materials that easily conducts or pass the current. The materials are classified based on their conducting property. rPE�-���h���Pi���P91�P��dtw@�w@��Si�I�3��4�p�=�7L��H�� BƒA�j��P� �p��P�*M���] �|���9�"9�-�9��;(s�S����� ��� �WN ��DD b"""��5B����Ep���:����zi6�ڕ�����x���X &�I�+�(���� x}�$��A���4 i��9C�i� .S��9NV80D4�!\��4m) ��0�A0P"�8�C(\0�f�H>�X`���A �!C�)L���A��ti>�H����l�H9��?�A A ceramic dish weigh from a few mm to several tons bind in the rocks washed by surface water groundwater! 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