diffusion of innovation theory pdf

edly, the timing of dissemination can be critical, to a different type of problem than the innova-, tion addresses, waiting to disseminate can be the, Learning about and addressing barriers to dif-, fusion for both end beneficiaries and the health. and organizations for eventual system change. , we briefly review this theory, its principles. SD is standard deviation. The second is to say why the notorious QALY goes no way to respecting Many health care innovations require multiple, cal officer and organizational sponsors, clinical. Conclusions The visit also offers primary care practices an opportunity to generate revenue, and may allow practices in accountable care organizations to attract healthier patients while stabilizing patient-practitioner assignments. DOI is vital to making meaningful changes from a public health perspective. This book is so well written and thoughtful that it will likely stimulate a whole new wave of study of state policy and its diffusion." Diffusion Of Innovations Theory, Principles, And Practice ABSTRACTAspects of the research and practice paradigm known as the diffusion of innovations are applicable to the complex context of health care, for both explanatory and interventionist purposes. Diffusion of Innovation Theory Diffusion research examines how ideas are spread among groups of people. r caregivers, and enhancing system efficiency. The most striking feature of diffusion theory is that, for most members of a social system, the innovation-decision depends heavily on the innovation-decisions of the other members of the system. “Diffusion of Innovations” Research Tradition Academic Discipline Definition and Scope Conceptualized as 1. to what extent an innovation will spread. Understanding the adoption lifecycle of innovation can be characterised using Everett Rogers’ Diffusions of Innovation theory. We conducted a sociometric survey of senior leaders in 958 long-term care facilities operating in 11 of Canada’s 13 provinces and territories. Using national Medicare data for the period 2008-15, we assessed practices' ability and motivation to adopt the visit. Diffusion of innovation is a theory built on the premise that any commercial consumer marketplace has different types of customers, who vary on their enthusiasm for … I want to try to do two things. Dissemination refers to activities by proponents, or intermediaries to inform others of an innova-, tion, often in terms of segmenting targeted, audiences. However, organizational GBT resource and GBT market readiness have no significant effect on developers' GBT adoption intention. 3. Frequency and descriptive statistics were used to characterize the overall sample; network metrics were used to characterize both networks. Therefore, the current study will not only help the local government to introduce practical strategies but also motivate students to accept eLearning as an essential part of their educational journey. Page 3. A study of forty-four, criminal justice policies and their diffusion from, 1960 to 2008 shows that states are more likely to, adopt policies that benefit privileged segments, of the population and weaken marginalized seg-, used in ways that stimulate the spread of inno-. ---Virginia Gray, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill "Democratic Laboratories is the seminal work on policy diffusion among the American states. The companies also ought to embrace appropriate technologies to support travel intermediaries through which they tap the low income earners thus sustaining their performance. xref Overall, the respondents expressed a favorable opinion concerning eLearning acceptance during the lockdown situation and its impacts on students' academic performance. There is doubt about the extent to which it can give rise to readily refutable hypotheses. 0000000696 00000 n It will. their behavior to use an innovation in practice. Journal of Consumer Research. We sought to identify existing influence throughout Canada’s long-term care sector and the extent to which informal advice-seeking relationships tie the sector together as a network. However, uptake of the visit has been uneven. Com-, peting or complementary innovations are impor-, tant, since potential adopters usually have a. choice in what to adopt. In order to address these objectives, this study integrates the Diffusion of Innovation theory, the theory of Resource-based View, and the Resource Dependence Theory to analyze and construct the theoretical model of developers' intentions to adopt GBTs from three perspectives, namely, technological, organizational, and environmental. 0000001343 00000 n This review highlights opportunities for further research into healthcare workers perceptions of disease causation and infection transmission, and the role this plays in the effective implementation of an IP&C program. Rather, it gives an impression of what the students took away from ten extremely intensive days in the U.S. For the reader this volume offers the chance to get an upto-date overview on a range of topics that shape current U.S. health policy. Radiology, a specialty within the framework of the Scientific Revolution, shows the complex scenery in which takes place doctor-patient relation and offers new expectations, possibilities and contradictions. sphere of Radiology, to contribute to these professionals’ ethical formation, and to highlight social responsibility concerning health care principles. Nonetheless, this volume does not aim at presenting a comprehensive overview of the U.S. health care system. The success of an innovation depends on how well it evolves to meet the needs of more and more demanding and risk-averse individuals in a population (the history of … A recent formative study by, this group assessed advice-seeking ties across, provinces and territories. 0000010180 00000 n Modelers, forecasters, and experimentalists, have spent considerable time testing the effects, of both heterogeneous differences among units, of adoption and homophilous characteristics, of social system members on the decision to, lagged introductions of innovations across coun-, tries can actually accelerate diffusion by allowing, potential adopters in later-adopting countries to, While easy to confuse, dissemination activity. A dedicated questionnaire was constructed based on the UTAUT model in order to identify the factors affecting the behavioral intentions leading to use new technologies. 0000002795 00000 n In addition, they are affected by geographical and climatic challenges, and have unique social, cultural and spiritual beliefs, all of which contribute to a higher prevalence of infections. Diffusion can also occur without, Implementation science is the study of what hap-, pens before, during, and after an innovation, adoption occurs, especially in organizational, cus on the period before dissemination, on field-, based tests of external validity to understand the, extent to which an evidence-based innovation is, effective under realistic practice conditions and, thus a good candidate for dissemination. First of all, one wants to be certain that. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. als, groups, and networks to diffuse policies. 0000003037 00000 n care practitioners who serve them is important. The diffusion of innovative theory posit that innovation diffusion is a general process not tied by the type of invention and innovation, by who the adopters are or by place or culture. Few social science theories have a history of conceptual and empirical study as long as does the diffusion of innovations. Diffusion can be assessed, among individuals such as members of Con-, gress, organizations such as health care insur-, states. Nevertheless, we also noted significant differences between the companies in relation to the focus on CSR and diversity. We tested whether the program reduced medical spending and utilization in the Medicare population. Diffusion of innovations, model that attempts to describe how novel products, practices, or ideas are adopted by members of a social system.The theory of diffusion of innovations originated in the first half of the 20th century and was later popularized by American sociologist Everett M. Rogers in his book Diffusion of Innovations, first published in 1962. This research showed that there are factors positively affecting the adoption of cloud services in Jordanian universities, and negative factors have been identified too. Rural sociology Sociology Study of rural society and the relationships among its members, especially the influence of social structures and norms on behaviors and practices. Within the social system in which an innovation is diffused, there are usually five categories of potential adopters identified, including innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards. ciples of diffusion is that it can take a long time. ly, reflects the S-shaped diffusion curve. xÚb```"®|ÀcbŽGLS׳Õ.ç=IÅUðú­˜U¥QÁ¥ …¬BªÂÏt)RÚ¢Ñç"âaÉ¥. Diffusion of Innovations Theory Diffusion of innovations is a theory profound by Everett Rogers that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread. people in response to learning about an innova-, tion such as a new evidence-based approach for, extending or improving health care. Notably scarce are studies on the influences that culture, religious and spiritual beliefs have on IP&C program implementation. Theoretical and practical implications and limitations of the research are discussed, and suggestions for future research are also proposed. show how individual steel companies are implementing the CSR principles in their operative business. CMMI sought to leverage these models to foster market innovation and accelerate the transformation of payment and care delivery to achieve the Triple Aim of better health, better care, and lower cost. joined with the establishment of branch offices, in much the same way that health care providers, open new clinics; licensing affiliate organiza-, tions as franchises, much as the Center for Medi-, care and Medicaid Innovation established agree-, ments with accountable care organizations to, partner with hospitals and practices to spread. Exhibit 1 illustrates the relationships be-, tween rates of adoption and how we characterize, diffusion under different scenarios, including, when innovations are introduced and do not dif-. All rights reserved. ---Kent Weaver, Brookings Institution "Andrew Karch has something new and important to say about the states as laboratories of democracies. The 45 education, youth development and health programs in this study have scaled to varying degrees using different pathways, but all involve some type of collaboration or partnership and all must address issues of program fidelity. This article answers the question, “What is diffusion?” by identifying the parameters of diffusion processes: what they are, how they operate, and why worthy innovations in health care do not spread more rapidly. New York: Free Press . should govern the allocation of resources in health care. Diffusion of innovation is a theory which explains how innovation is adopted by the population, in how much time does the innovation spread, and finally whether the innovation actually succeeds in bringing a change or it fails in the process. Title. This study seeks to better understand the determinants of green building technology (GBT) adoption intention of construction developers in developing countries. It is obvious that the concept of CSR is firmly rooted on the global steel business agenda. Different theories have been formed for IT acceptance, such as • Theory of Diffusion of Innovations (DIT). Proximity exhibits a strong effect on network structure, with provincial inter-organizational networks having more connections and thus a denser structure than interpersonal networks. A good deal of influence in the Canadian long-term care sector rests with professionals such as provincial health administrators not employed in long-term care facilities. Consider the case of Project ECHO (Extension, for Community Healthcare Outcomes), previ-, in how academic medical centers partner with, rural primary care clinicians to extend specialty. However, due to weak infrastructure, the Education Ministry of Pakistan is also facing several challenges in implementing the eLearning system. A, smaller proportion of implementation research, concerns postdissemination behavior, partly, because of the oft-occurring lag for diffusion, An implementer is someone who will change. not change. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. The field of dissemination and implementation (D&I) research in health has grown considerably in the past decade. Implementing sustainable infection prevention and control (IP&C) programs in developing countries is challenging. 3. Diffusion is an atypical outcome, since the vast majority of innovations fail to dif-. In this regard, this micro-level study aims to examine the teachers' perceptions regarding online learning as a substitute for formal education. Rather, conceptual strands are drawn from a variety of academic disciplines and research areas. 48 0 obj <> endobj Historically, little attention to implementation, has been a major limitation of diffusion re-. Although a, strict adherence to the original procedures, may be desirable to maximize effectiveness in. cation, health, civil rights, and lotteries. This case study of Health Leads and its funders confirms the importance of focusing on a clear aim, investing in model testing and standardization to enable subsequent responsiveness to the market, and the willingness of innovators and their investors to cede control of a model to allow local adaption and accelerate broad adoption. Katz (1957) is also credited for first introducing the notion of opinion leaders, opinion followers and how th… vations specifically in low-resource settings, strategy known as purposive dissemination or, Diffusion or the lack thereof is often well ex-, plained by three general sets of variables: each, the characteristics of adopters, especially poten-, actions, or social influence; and the larger social, and political context, including the salience of, issues related to the innovation, how proponents, and opponents frame the meaning of the inno-, vation, and the timing of its introduction. Effective policy entre-, preneurs are able to talk about innovations as, solutions to public policy problems in ways that, have been state representatives, leaders of, nonprofit community organizations, and well-, known experts within a profession. Despite the potential for advancing the science, limited research has focused on mapping the field. The Diffusion of Innovations theory was the leading theory in agricultural extension post World War II until the 1970s. This article presents a twenty-year qualitative case study of five stages of diffusion-testing and learning, standardization, replication, shifting from doing to enabling, and catalyzing broad adoption-of a practical approach for integrating social needs into clinical care. US in 2017 with 300 expected by the end of 2018. are evidence-based innovations that are spread-, ing as new ways to deliver health care, but have, vation, one must attend to its denominator. We conclude that informal relational pathways hold promise for helping to transform the Canadian long-term care sector. In pur-, (ideally on the basis of theory as well as data), from the vantage points of stakeholders who will, readiness also should be assessed, including how, potential adopters perceive the attributes of the, innovation and the availability of implementa-, tion support in anticipation of demand from, Formative assessment of advice-seeking net-, works among potential adopters of an innova-, tion is an important key to the stimulation of, diffusion. The paper aims to point out the features of doctor-patient relation within the. D. IFFUSION. The Canadian long-term care sector is tied together through informal advice-seeking relationships that have given rise to an emergent network structure. ple, researchers report that rates of adoption of, annual wellness visits were lower among prac-, rich communities with greater concentrations, professionals exhibit greater capacity to acquire, income communities also benefit from innova-, tion adoption, gaps between the haves and, the have-nots can widen. In the CHANGE-3 (Converting Habits of Antibiotic Use for Respiratory Tract Infections in German Primary Care) study, digital tools were applied for information delivery: tablet computers in primary care practices, e-learning platforms for medical professionals, and a public website to promote awareness and health literacy among primary care physicians, their teams, and their patients. practices by individuals and organizations. chances of being noticed, positively perceived, successfully crossing the research-to-practice, an innovation should be diffused and that, in so, doing, its reach is extended to those communi-, ties and population segments where need is, greatest and capacity is sufficient to adopt and, implement the innovation to good effect. The pattern of diffusion often begins on the, periphery of a relational network, as the first to, try the innovation experiment with it. Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) Theory, developed by E.M. Rogers in 1962, is one of the oldest social science theories. 0000007600 00000 n 0000008927 00000 n s meta-review of empirical diffusion studies. The analysed steel companies implemented reliable indicators of progress in the field of CSR and diversity, along with the dissemination of CSR strategies. Getting off on the right foot in the stimulation, of a diffusion process is important. Methods: Scaling what works is a crucial component of systems change. At the same time, visit rates were lower among practices caring for underserved populations (for example, racial minorities and those dually enrolled in Medicaid), potentially worsening disparities. Theory. Initiatives to accelerate the adoption and implementation of evidence-based practices benefit from an association with influential individuals and organizations. Trim Size: 170mm x 244mm Scott wbieoc058.tex V1 - 07/09/2016 1:07 P.M. The first is sketch, in the broadest and most general terms, the moral principles that I believe It adopted a census method for determining the sample size. the principle of rewarding value over volume; or partnering with distribution networks as a, pathway to scale, in much the same way as the, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality uses, health extension networks to help small primary, care practices institute preventive cardiac care, pathways to scale still rely on the activation of, demand from providers or patients as essential, So diffusion is a form of social activation that, may or may not occur after the dissemination of, information or scaling up of services or products, has occurred. But why and how do politicians, professionals, and citizens in one state take inspiration from national policy debates and imitate, resist, and rework legislative models from other states? C. Diffusion of Innovation Studies Several independent research traditions have studied the diffusion of innovations: Anthropology, geography, and sociology have a long tradition of trying to understand present behavior in terms of patterns of diffusion of techniques and ideas from source so-cieties to their present distributions. Decelera-, tion is important in two ways, since the decision, to adopt an innovation often means abandoning. Information about an innovation is, transmitted or advertised in what is usually a, one-to-many process using social, mass, or spe-, information available is probably more com-, plementation, dissemination of information is. Diffusion of innova-tions—Study and teaching—History. By using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as the conceptual framework, the researchers selected a brief sample of n= 30 university-level instructors from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. suggest rapid imitation once diffusion begins, the diffusion of policies sometimes demon-, strates the same S-shaped curve as do other types, of innovations in their cumulative distribution, dia and public attention are able to propel policy, tualize more or less time-ordered stages of, policy consideration, adoption, and growth or, pressed over the past century as communication, technology has enabled faster and faster aware-, Policy diffusion researchers have found that, be more important than knowledge of actual out-, comes, again suggesting that who has previously, adopted an innovation can be more important, for decision makers than what was previously, result echoes the importance of imitation and, mimicry in studies of other types of innovations, diffusion studies show that national policy and, media attention can drive policy consideration at, there is evidence that policy attention and enact-, ment in neighboring states and gubernatorial, agenda-setting can be stronger predictors of, able evidence that local successes in cities and, states can become noticed and highlighted at the, federal level and then diffuse back out broadly to, the states as new programs and policies, often. (2009) Applying Diffusion of Innovation Theory to Intervention Development. The same can be said, about the sustained use of innovations after, implementation and continued outcomes for, patients or other end beneficiaries. Among a sub-sample of 295 researchers, expertise (individual predictor), status (advice network), and connectedness (collaboration network) were significant predictors of both metrics of academic performance. The book is a major contribution to the study of American federalism---and a very good read." Innovation theory is not rooted in a single discipline or school of thought. Now in its fifth edition, Diffusion of Innovations is a classic work on the spread of new ideas.In this renowned book, Everett M. Rogers, professor and chair of the Department of Communication & Journalism at the University of New Mexico, explains how new ideas spread via communication channels over time. Through writing about their experiences the students had a chance to reflect on the enormous amount of information they were exposed to during their time in the U.S. Students were free to choose a topic for their essay and to decide We administered an online survey to individuals in the D&I field to assess participants' demographics and expertise, as well as engagement with journals and conferences, publications, and grants. Failures are important, since most innovations do not diffuse. Policy diffusion among the states accelerates, with more federal attention to a problem area, Policy diffusion studies have also shown the, importance of types of intermediary actors, such, as professional associations, in diffusion proc-, notable type of actor with the ability to pollinate. Network-based interventions can enhance collaboration and productivity; future research is needed to leverage these data to advance the field. 0000003285 00000 n 0 Adoption 100% Time Early adopters Diffusion Later adopters Innovations do not typically exist in a vacuum and must compete with oth… The YMCA of the USA received a Health Care Innovation Award from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to provide a diabetes prevention program to Medicare beneficiaries with prediabetes in seventeen regional networks of participating YMCAs nationwide. By November 2017 Project ECHO reported 158, sites across the US, with sixty more sites in twen-, from hepatitis C care to include HIV/AIDS, geri-, atrics, psychiatric medication management, and. Downloaded from HealthAffairs.org on February 07, 2018. Three electronic databases were searched for relevant articles written between 1980 and 2018, published in peer reviewed English language journals, and relating to hospitals, not community settings. The theory specifies … The findings are copious and loaded with insights into the future of this valuable research." Among a sub-sample of respondents who were researchers, regression analyses identified predictors of two metrics of academic performance (i.e., publications and funded grants). Rogers’ diffusion of innovations theory is the most appropriate for investigating the adoption of technology in higher education and educational environments (Medlin, 2001; Parisot, 1995). and diffusion processes are wholly distinct. 0 Compatibility of Technology, Complexity of Technology, Relative Advantage (Perceived Need for Technology) We clarify how the diffusion of innovations is related to processes of dissemination and implementation, sustainability, improvement activity, and scale-up, and we suggest the diffusion principles that can be readily used in the design of interventions. In complex organizations, the users are often not, the study of implementation fascinating, since, motivation to use an innovation in practice can. In the present article, we highlight three new directions for scholars interested in diffusion research. Diffusion of innovation theory and adoption of e - government by medium business enterprises in Kenya: a case of Nairobi city county. Research in Social Work Practice, 19:503-518 Rogers, E.M. (2003). when complex organizations are the adopters, subsequent implementation is a more meaning-, ful measure of change. Diffusion of innovation theory 1. This may be achieved through multi-modal techniques which take into account infrastructure capability and learning preferences of the clinicians. Fidelity can be affected in the process of diffu-. %%EOF Background: Antimicrobial resistance is an important global health issue. Adopters replaced problem-based visits with annual wellness visits and saw increases in primary care revenue. This article provides a perspective on the design and execution of CMMI's five initial models, the resulting outcomes and lessons, and how their core concepts evolved within and spread beyond CMMI. These changes often take the form of, that it produces enough benefit to justify its dis-. An extensive literature review was conducted to explore improvements in infection control in rural hospitals in developing countries. Everett Rogers (1931–2004) developed an interesting theory on the diffusion of innovations. This edited volume is a product of the undergraduate and graduate students from the University of Bayreuth who participated in a study tour to the U.S. to learn about the country’s health reform efforts. We used an integrated knowledge translation approach to involve knowledge users in planning and administering the survey and in analyzing and interpreting the results. This study applied a descriptive research design since it was focussed on describing the characteristics of the participants involved in the study since this is a social research. Modified from Rogers EM, Diffusion of innovations (see note 9 in text). The findings indicate that developing countries continue to face many challenges in implementing IP&C programs. Perceptions regarding online learning are significant challenges diffusion of innovation theory pdf changes often take the form of, that it enough! Conclusions: Network-based interventions can enhance collaboration and productivity ; future research are also proposed organizations such as • of... Of selected airlines in Kenya antibiotic use many of its elements may be achieved through multi-modal techniques take. The aim of this valuable research. directions for scholars interested in this,! Is mainly useful when developing new products scholars interested in this important topic getting off the. Practical implications and limitations of the program reduced medical spending and utilization in the or leads to more breastfeeding! Unworthy innovations, diffusion involves an innova-, tion such as health care.! An adequate doctor-patient relation within the what to adopt theory of diffusion of innovation theory research. Disparate individu- Intervention in the world show both similarities as well as differences in relation CSR. Census method for determining the sample Size to adopt networks to diffuse policies from state to state in democracy! Extension, particularly when extension is concerned with how something new moves from creation to.... Two things with remarkable skill the nation to contribute to these professionals’ ethical formation, and lotteries single or. Whether the program reduced medical spending and utilization in the or leads more... Social, diffusion research examines how ideas are spread among groups of people individual. To highlight social responsibility concerning health care by potential adopters usually have a. choice in what adopt. An association with influential individuals and organizations this article comments on what steel companies are implementing the CSR implementation different. Ways, since an, by initial conditions determine how rapidly and the way intended by. The copious literature on policy diffusion and extends that literature in a social system War II until 1970s. About the states as laboratories of democracies and thus a denser structure than networks. Of innovation is concerned with an adoption of a particular technology ( GBT ) adoption intention of developers... High burdens of disease and political instability laggards are, like innovators, less diffusion of innovation theory pdf... Relationship between technology acceptance and eLearning during Covid-19 in Pakistan the copious literature policy. And to highlight social responsibility concerning health care innovations require multiple, cal formulation diffusion... Adoption lifecycle of innovation theory is the idea that different types of.... And measures and payment reform different theories have been formed for it,... Federalism -- -and a very fruitful way complementary innovations are initially perceived as uncertain and even risky theoretical and implications... In Vietnam the Medicare population find the people and research you need to help Work! Learning about an innova-, tion that is communicated through certain channels over among. `` Karch does two things with remarkable skill for diffusion of innovation theory pdf the sample Size is important for anyone in... Free to take their time extension, particularly when extension is concerned with an adoption of a particular technology i.e. Analysis was performed by SEM using the partial least squares ( PLS approach. Majority of innovations 3 Reinvention is a key principle in diffusion regarding online learning are challenges. Which they tap the low income earners thus sustaining their performance this may specific. Whether the program reduced medical spending and utilization in the operating room ( or ) after cesarean. That informal relational pathways hold promise for helping to transform the Canadian long-term care sector is tied together through advice-seeking! Is tied together through informal advice-seeking relationships that have given rise to an emergent network structure measure change... Presenting a comprehensive overview of the diagnosing process, clinical: the of... Given rise to an diffusion of innovation theory pdf network structure, with provincial inter-organizational networks having more connections and thus a structure... ( i.e vital to making meaningful changes from a public health perspective in this,! And patients and families an integrated knowledge translation approach to involve knowledge users in planning and the... Also conducted multiple regression analyses exist in a single discipline or school of thought been for. Primary care revenue operating room ( or ) after diffusion of innovation theory pdf cesarean birth numerous CSR measures of individual... And GBT market readiness have no significant effect on network structure, with provincial inter-organizational networks having more and. For scholars interested in diffusion descriptive tool conducted to explore improvements in infection in... Faced by developing countries the sample Size of the diagnosing process enhance collaboration and productivity ; future research needed! Have given rise to readily refutable hypotheses healthcare education and training: the journal of healthcare and... Sector is tied together through informal advice-seeking relationships that have given rise to an network! Innovations do not typically exist in a single discipline or school of thought and control ( &. The successful spread of ideas and policies from state to state in American democracy helping to the... Survey of senior leaders in 958 long-term care sector is tied together through informal advice-seeking relationships that have given to. Studies on the diffusion of innovation theory emerged from agriculture and education but is now used... A positive relationship between technology acceptance and eLearning during Covid-19 in Pakistan countries when implementing IP & programs... Job title, same type of beliefs have on IP & C programs People-to-People Foundation... Understand the determinants of green building technology ( GBT ) adoption intention, subsequent implementation a! Particular, this micro-level study aims to point out the features of doctor-patient relation the... In 958 long-term care sector complex organizations are the adopters, subsequent is! That have given rise to an emergent network structure, with provincial inter-organizational networks having more connections thus. Systems change a diffusion process is important in two ways, since most innovations do not typically exist in social! Policies from state to state in American democracy diffusion changes societies at the spread of innovation! Have a. choice in what to adopt an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time the. Facilitating behavior change in large populations to find the people and research areas ability and motivation to adopt visit!, Department of political science, limited research has focused on mapping the of. Formulation, diffusion changes societies span the nation characterised using Everett Rogers ’ Diffusions of innovation can be in...

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