, The Veneti, now without a navy, had been bested. Caesar then crossed the river in one day using a pontoon bridge. Caesar defeated the 60,000 strong Gallic army, and finally rescued Cicero's legion. They then gave chase to the Helvetii, whom surrendered. Both sides used archers and slingers, though little is known about the Gallic battle strategy and thus their effectiveness is unknown. Caesar then turned his attention to the Aedui, whom he also wished to conquer. Crassus realized he would have to force battle, and located the Gallic encampment of some 50,000. The infantry were heavy foot with Impact ability and were mostly in large units to represent them fighting in deep formations. He had accumulated great wealth to pay off his debts and increased his stature to heroic levels. Most had contact with Roman merchants and some, particularly those that were governed by republics such as the Aedui, had enjoyed stable political alliances with Rome in the past. The Veneti and the other peoples along the Atlantic coast were versed in sailing, and had vessels that were well suited to the rough waters of the Atlantic. Discipline was at the core of the Roman army. The Germanic tribes had promised aid to the Treveri, and Labienus realized that his force (not even a legion strong) would be at a serious disadvantage. He delivered the refusal to the Gauls, and then promptly returned to Italy to gather the legions he raised along his previous trip and gather three veteran legions. Gaul would not formally be made into Roman provinces until the reign of Augustus in 27 BC, and there may have been unrest in the region as late as 70 AD. The Romans had 10 units – 6 Legionaries, 1 Gallic Cavalry, 1 Numidian Light Horse, 1 Auxiliary infantry, 1 Light Foot Slingers. , The Romans respected and feared the Gallic tribes.  A number of lesser rebellions took place subsequently, but Roman control of Gaul was not seriously challenged again until the 2nd century AD. Fearing another mass migration akin to the devastating Cimbrian War, Rome, now keenly invested in the defense of Gaul, was irrevocably drawn into war. Caesar was victorious. The consuls of 60 and 59 BC both wanted to lead a campaign against the Gauls while consul, though neither did. , In the ensuing Battle of Bibracte, the Celts and Romans fought for the better part of the day in a hotly contested battle with the Romans eventually gaining victory. Claude Cueni wrote a semihistorical novel, The Caesar's Druid, about a fictional Celtic druid, servant of Caesar and recorder of Caesar's campaigns. , His ambition was to conquer and plunder some territories to get himself out of debt, and it is possible that Gaul was not his initial target. The Veneti also had sails, whereas the Romans relied on oarsmen. Relations between the Romans and Gauls had long been a tense mixture of war and trade. When 24,000 Harudes joined his cause, Ariovistus demanded that the Sequani give him more land to accommodate the Harudes people. What is known about battle strategy indicates that it varied between tribe, although engaging in pitched battle was frequent to prove bravery. Gilliver notes that Caesar took with him a good number of Gallic chiefs whom he considered untrustworthy, a further sign that Gaul had not been comprehensively conquered. Caesar assaulted Cassivellanus' stronghold (likely modern day Wheathampstead), and Cassivellanus surrendered. Caesar chose to withdraw back across the Channel. Not all tribes engaged the Romans directly, as the Romans were a formidable enemy, and thus guerilla tactics were frequent. Lacking the discipline of their opponents, they found it hard to make an orderly retreat. Instead of making battle, the Belgic army simply disbanded, as it could be re-assembled easily. Each Roman could defend himself with his shield if need be, but it was in the tight formation of a legion that he found his best defense. When 24,000 Harudes joined his cause, Ariovistus demanded that the Sequani give him more land to accommodate the Harudes people. Current historical research suggests that Roma… Upon his return from Britain, Caesar was hailed as a hero, though he had achieved little beyond landing because his army had been too small. Poor weather worsened the situation, and Caesar could do little more than raid the countryside. Caesar was lenient towards the tribes as he needed to leave before the stormy season set in, which would make crossing the channel impossible. It was with mixed feelings they approached their foe. Did you know that they invented wooden barrels and soap? The other player controls all the independent tribes of Gaul as they slowly awake to the peril of Roman conquest. The situation was so critical that Caesar himself took up his shield and joined the front line of the legion. Having previously captured a number of Roman troops as prisoners, the Gauls used the knowledge of the Romans to build siege towers and earthworks. With the Latinization of the Celts and the Gauls, the Celtic dialects … The Romans, on the other hand, fought wars of conquest. Most had contact with Roman merchants and some, particularly those that were governed by republics such as the Aedui, had enjoyed stable political alliances with Rome in the past. Even contemporary authors estimated that the population of the Helvetii and their allies were lower; Livy surmised that there were 157,000 overall (though Henige still believes this number inaccurate). Tight Roman formations kept their sides safe. It has consequently been a subject of intense study for Latinists and is one of the classic prose sources traditionally used as a standard teaching text in modern Latin education.. , The DLC campaign Caesar in Gaul for the strategy game Total War: Rome II is set during the Gallic Wars. , The Veneti held the upper hand for much of the campaign. With short 10-15 minute podcasts, these guys do a good job focusing on one topic. Again, he returned to Transalpine Gaul for the winter to see to the civil affairs of the province. The Gauls won decisively, both Sabinus and Cotta were killed, and only a handful of Romans survived. , Caesar's cockiness had nearly ended in his defeat, but the experience of the legions combined with his personal role in combat turned a disaster into an incredible victory. Although modern archeology suggests that Caesars preparations were not as complete as he describes, it is apparent that Caesar laid some truly incredible siege works. Caesar extracted payment of grain, slaves, and an annual tribute to Rome. The Carthaginians win. They prized battlefield courage above all … However, Britain was not particularly rich at the time; Marcus Cicero summed up Roman sentiment by saying "Its also been established that there isn't a scrap of silver in the island and no hope of booty except for slaves – and I don't suppose you're expecting them to know much about literature or music!" While militarily just as strong as the Romans, the Gallic tribes' internal divisions helped ease victory for Caesar, and Vercingetorix's attempt to unite the Gauls against Roman invasion came too late. The fortifications were dug in two lines, one to protect from the defenders, and one to protect from the relievers. He now began planning for a proper invasion of Britain. Just as the Romans had beaten the superior forces of Carthage in the First Punic War by using the corvus, a simple technological advantage allowed them to beat the superior Venetic fleet. Caesar: Rome vs. Gaul is a fast-playing, easy-to-learn, two-player card-driven game on Caesar’s conquest of Gaul.  Gilliver thinks that there were not more than 50,000 Helvetii and allies. But this isolated his legions, making them easier to attack. Thus he heard from the great of the late Roman Republic (Marius/Sulla, the Triumvirates), the Diodachy, the Wars of the Roses, the Three Kingdoms, the Tokugawa Shogunate, and more. The truce was violated when Caesar learned that German horsemen were edging towards the knoll and throwing stones at his mounted escort. , Caesar's trip into Britain was less invasion than expedition. Caesar and his contemporaries makes impossible claims about the number of Gauls killed (over a million), while claiming almost zero Roman casualties. The troops were highly trained. , The Helvetii was a confederation of about five related Gallic tribes that lived on the Swiss plateau, hemmed in by the mountains as well as the Rhine and Rhone rivers. In the five centuries between Caesar's conquest and the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Gaulish language and cultural identity underwent a syncretism with the Roman culture of the new governing class, and evolved into a hybrid Gallo-Roman culture that eventually permeated all levels of society. Gaius Caninius Rebilus set siege to the oppidum, focusing on building a series of camps, a circumvallation, and disrupting Gallic access to water. If you can stand the weight of the Roman responsibility to generate a competitive game, Caesar can quickly become a staple of the two-player game night that offers a good deal of replayability and interesting choices. Roman warfare was every bit as brutal as that of the Gauls, but it was far less flamboyant. The British adventure nearly ended in defeat when bad weather wrecked much of their fleet and the unfamiliar sight of massed chariots of the Britons caused confusion among their forces. In other ways, they were hugely different, and those differences shaped the war between them. , Caesar finished up the campaign season by trying to take out the coastal tribes who had allied with the Veneti. Kate Gilliver, Adrian Goldsworthy and Michael Whitby (2005), Rome at War: Caesar and his Legacy. Cicero's message finally reached Caesar, and Caesar immediately took two legions and cavalry to relieve the siege. Harvests had failed in Gaul that year, but Caesar still wintered his legions in Gaul, and expected the Gauls to feed his troops. , The concept album Helvetios, by Swiss folk metal band Eluveitie, tells the story of the Gallic Wars through the eyes of the Helvetii. But once again, Caesar's supplies failed him, and he was forced to withdraw, lest he engage the still mighty Suebi while short on supplies. Following on from our first game of To the Strongest on April 1st, we made an early start next morning so that we could get another battle done before Luke was due back in Osaka (Luke's report can be found here). The writings of Julius Caesar remain the main source of information, which complicates the task of historians as it is biased by Caesar. What turned the tide of battle was Caesar's reinforcements, in the form of the X legion which returned from chasing the Atrebates, and the two straggler legions who finally arrived. Around 62 BC, when a Roman client state, the Arverni, conspired with the Sequani and the Suebi nations east of the Rhine to attack the Aedui, a strong Roman ally, Rome turned a blind eye. Adrian Goldsworthy (2003), In the Name of Rome: The Men Who Won the Roman Empire. The Gauls attempted to burn down the Roman siege works, but to no avail. The revolts had also shown that the Romans were not truly in command of Gaul. Firmly packed together, the Romans could deploy more blades in a small space than the Gauls could, although they lacked their reach. The Romans were the opposite of the Gauls. The rest of his army was left in Gaul to keep order. After the Gauls defeated the Romans at the confluence of the Tiber and the Allia rivers, the Gauls marched on to Rome. In late July 390 BCE, the undefended city fell to the invaders to be burnt and sacked. The TV series Rome begins during the conquest of Gaul, and protagonists Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo, are based on two historical centurions who fought during the Gallic Wars in Caesar's Legio XI Claudia and are mentioned in Commentarii de Bello Gallico. Video focuses on the period of the Gallic Wars, the Battle of Alesia in 52 BC. , Caesar's stunning victories in 58 BC had unsettled the Gallic tribes. There is no clear end-date for the war, but the imminent Roman Civil War led to the pulling out of Caesar's troops in 50 BC. Severe punishments ensured they obeyed orders even in the face of death. As everyone became tightly crammed together, the Gauls were not able to swing their swords properly. Caesar (whose own casualty numbers are likely much lower than in actuality) claims that 700 men died, including 46 centurions. On paper, the Veneti appeared to have the superior fleet. Vercingetorix was imprisoned and then executed. Caesar crossed late in the season, and in great haste, leaving well after midnight on August 23. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, who were in turn defeated by the Romans by 103 BC. They too tried to tell Cicero the story that Ambiorix had told Sabinus, but Cicero was not as gullible as Sabinus. , Historian David Henige takes particular issue with the supposed population and warrior counts. The Roman assault ended in clear defeat, as the Romans were greatly outnumbered.  The rest of 53 BC was occupied with a punitive campaign against the Eburones and their allies, who were said to have been all but exterminated by the Romans. In order to strengthen Rome's position among the Gauls, he had paid substantial money to king Ariovistus of the Suebi to cement an alliance. Caesar's supplies ran thin on June 20 and he was forced to travel towards allied territory in Bibracte, as while his army had easily crossed the Saône, his supply train had not. ANCIENT HISTORY; INSTANT ARTICLES; Jul 20, 2017 Andrew Knighton, Guest Author. It worked just as well on the Menapii, who surrendered as well.  Caesar claims that most of Ariovistus’ one-hundred and twenty thousand men were killed. In 56 BC, Caesar defeated the Veneti in a naval battle and took most of northwest Gaul. 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