Edible coral reef species are widely harvested (e.g., fish, crabs, lobsters, snails, clams, octopus, sea urchins, and turtles). In addition, it may be important to address smaller scale changes in coral reefs before they grow and become apparent in an aerial photograph. Restoration may take many forms, including improving water quality, restoring fish or shellfish populations depleted by over harvest, and restoring coral structural damage from such things as ship groundings. Whatever the mechanisms used, evaluation and plan revision are essential to a responsive management system. This initiative was undertaken by marine park managers within the Caribbean region who have created a group called Caribbean Marine Protected Area Managers (CAMP). Coral reefs are very diverse, complex ecosystems which occur in shallow tropical waters. 9. 1976. Photographs are usually the best way to determine transition boundaries between reef zones and specific locations of prominent reef features such as drop offs, coral buttresses, or branching coral "forests." To adequately administer a coral reef protected area and make conservation a reality, managers will need adequate personnel and funding. Evaluation should be continual and begin at the time of implementation, but a formal evaluation mechanism or procedure is desirable. 1989. Economic benefits of marine protected areas. To adequately administer a coral reef protected area and make conservation a reality, managers will need adequate personnel and funding. Hurricanes, for example, might delay the recovery of an area set aside as a marine reserve (or "recovery zone") where fishing is prohibited, or the recovery of an area damaged by a boat grounding. Perhaps the single best indicator of poor reef condition is the persistence of large amounts of fleshy algae which appear on reefs with excess nutrients or low numbers of herbivorous fishes from over-fishing. Coral reef sanctuaries, parks, refuges or other protected areas have already been recognized as priority areas for protection by virtue of their park, sanctuary, or refuge designation. Water Resources Division No. Marine protected area management plans should be formally reviewed and revised as necessary at a five-year minimum interval. Natural stresses can combine with damage from recreational use or shoreline development. Monitoring: Coral reefs: research methods. For federally managed areas, management plans must meet the requirements of the Government Performance Results Act (GPRA). Whatever the mechanisms used, evaluation and plan revision are essential to a responsive management system. Fisheries 49:18-22. Another experimental technique, the reintroduction of laboratory-reared Nassau groupers to locations of former spawning aggregations, may help replenish this over-fished species in the Caribbean. Research: Resource exploitation in the form of fish and shellfish harvest is allowed in all coral reef sanctuaries, parks and refuges under United States jurisdiction. and D.C. Reed. A base map of the protected area can become a useful "peg board" upon which other information can be plotted, and it will increase your state of knowledge about the resource as it is completed. The decline of coral reefs destabilizes the … Resource Needs and Sources 1994. and J.R. Clark. 10 ways to protect CORAL REEFS. Therefore, every area manager must make public education and outreach one of the major elements in their management program. Economic benefits of marine protected areas. Such photographs and maps will usually require obtaining underwater photographic mosaics, use of underwater video-photography, and/or recording of information from grids placed on the reef surface. Stoddart, D.R. Johannes (Eds.) Duplication of coral reef protection efforts is not always necessary when coordination of activities, information, and methodologies and sharing of infrastructure, training opportunities, and products will increase efficiency. Furthermore, the capacity of coral reef ecosystems to sustain use is uncertain and, in the United States, Federal agencies are required by Executive Order 13089 to go beyond sustainable use and to ensure that their actions will not degrade coral reef ecosystems. Restoration techniques following impacts include transplanting live corals, seeding coral larvae, replacing limestone substrate in deeply gouged reef areas, and transplanting seagrasses and other organisms. A detailed environmental impact statement (EIS) was prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) during plan development for each of these units and additional EISs are prepared as plans are periodically updated. Rigney, H. 1990. The management plan should be consistent with any statutory or regulatory mandates and should encompass legal, administrative, and educational concerns along with ecological and physical management goals. An information network for area managers has been established on the Internet for the Caribbean area. Canadian Jrl. How marine fishery reserves can improve fisheries. However, management plans will be more effective if they contain measurable indicators of success that may be monitored annually to serve as a "barometer" of successful management. Monitoring programs should trigger responsive actions of additional investigation when signs of change beyond normally anticipated levels are observed. U.S. MAB Prog., US Dept. The value of coral reefs to mankind is only beginning to be understood. Recovery actions should be taken as soon as possible after the damage occurs. use of digital video cameras in underwater housings to document abundance of reef organisms, particularly living coral and the "fleshy" algae ("seaweed") that are useful indicators of reef status. Back to list of elements. Of State, Washington D.C. 63p. UNESCO Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology. Coastlines protected by coral reefs are also more stable in terms of erosion than those without.4, Under the Endangered Species Act, 22 coral species are listed as threatened, and three are listed as endangered. Coral reef protected area managers should make maximum use of appropriate legal authorities in obtaining restitution for damages and finding funding to restore damaged coral. MPA managers must find ways to address external threats in addition to actions taken within the MPA. By identifying and addressing the combined effects of natural and anthropogenic stresses, managers can better protect coral reefs. However, some of the most devastating stresses in the last 2 decades have involved natural (or apparently natural) stresses. Stoddart, D.R. Foster, N. and M.H. Education and Outreach 1984. Fort Collins, CO 80525 Networking can afford benefits to management that are far reaching but not always apparent. For this reason, area managers may also want to obtain photographs or develop detailed maps of selected reef areas for documentation and monitoring purposes. It is often the most entrepreneurial manager that is the most successful. at the conclusion of a study, annual completion of monitoring observations, or following a particular event that may have affected area resources), and at the time of formal review and update of the areas management plan. Coral reef area managers should also keep in mind that additional training may be essential for employees to become knowledgeable in activities such as law enforcement, safety and first aid, operation of specialized equipment, public speaking, and other practices that are necessary for effective management but not normally included in school curricula. Salm, R.V. Education and Outreach 1984. By identifying and addressing the combined effects of natural and anthropogenic stresses, managers can better protect coral reefs. IUCN Pub. Back to list of elements. However, management plans will be more effective if they contain measurable indicators of success that may be monitored annually to serve as a "barometer" of successful management. 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